JNL: Japanese as a Native Language

Reading

Grade 1

SKILLS

  • shares favorite texts & authors and gives reasons for preferences
  • selects texts for a purpose & explains purpose
  • reads & recognises hiragana & katakana
  • begins to understand the use of common particles
  • begins to understand common nouns, verbs, adjectives, directions, synonyms & antonyms
  • begins to understand basic sentence structures
  • begins to read simple texts in hiragana and katakana
  • responds to the language & imagery in stories
  • examines & compares different text types
  • recites & performs poems, chants and rhymes
  • reads aloud with developing fluency and intonation
  • understands and responds to stories read aloud/shared reading
  • shows awareness of character and plot
  • increases repertoire of common vocabulary
  • recalls sequence of events and important points from a story

STRATEGIES

  • applies a range of comprehension strategies:
    • retelling
    • questioning
    • predicting
    • making connections (text to self, text to text, text to world)
    • visualising
    • activating prior knowledge
  • begins to use common punctuation when reading aloud
  • attempts to pronounce new words
  • uses context, meaning, grammar, illustrations to help decode
  • self-corrects when reading does not make sense

Grade 2

SKILLS

  • shares favorite texts & authors and gives reasons for preferences
  • selects texts for a purpose & explains purpose
  • reads & recognises Grade 1 kanji (教育漢字), including onyomi & kunyomi
  • distinguishes the appearance, pronunciation and meaning of Grade 1 kanji characters
  • understands the use of common particles
  • understands common nouns, verbs, adjectives, directions, synonyms & antonyms
  • reads simple texts in hiragana and katakana, using decoding strategies
  • understands basic sentence structures
  • identifies features, audience & purpose of different text types
  • recites, sings & creates interpretations of poems, chants, rhymes & songs
  • discusses own and others likes and dislikes; points of view
  • tells known stories from different points of view
  • understands and responds to stories read aloud/shared reading
  • shows awareness of character and plot
  • increases repertoire of common vocabulary
  • recalls sequence of events and important points from a story

STRATEGIES

  • applies a range of comprehension strategies:
    • retelling
    • questioning
    • predicting
    • making connections (text to self, text to text, text to world)
    • visualising
    • activating prior knowledge
  • uses techniques of reading aloud, with correct enunciation, appropriate volume & pace
  • uses common punctuation when reading aloud
  • attempts to pronounce new words
  • begins to understand more about kanji characters by recognising the radicals
  • uses context, meaning, grammar, illustrations to help decode
  • self-corrects when reading does not make sense

Grade 3

SKILLS

  • reads a wide range of texts for pleasure
  • discerns thoughts, feelings expressed by an author
  • reads & recognises Grade 2 kanji (教育漢字), including onyomi & kunyomi
  • distinguishes the appearance, pronunciation and meaning of Grade 2 kanji characters
  • understand more about kanji characters by recognising the radicals
  • understands adverbs, abstract adjectives & pronouns
  • begins to understand complex sentence structures
  • begins to understand different writing styles (keitai, joutai)
  • identifies features, audience & purpose of different text types
  • understands common Japanese proverbs & sayings
  • discusses own and others likes and dislikes; points of view
  • tells known stories from different points of view
  • discusses how aspects of stories can represent different beliefs & traditions
  • explores the ways that the same story can be told in many ways
  • uses text features to locate information in written texts efficiently
  • uses search tools to locate information in digital texts

STRATEGIES

  • applies a range of comprehension strategies (same as Primary 1 plus):
    • making inferences (eg: from pictures, titles, labels)
    • monitoring
  • identifies features, audience & purpose of different text types
  • determines how choice of words affect the mood and meaning of a text

Grade 4

SKILLS

  • reads a wide range of texts for pleasure
  • reads & recognises the first 100 Grade 3 kanji (教育漢字), including onyomi & kunyomi
  • distinguishes the appearance, pronunciation and meaning of Grade 3 kanji characters
  • understands the use of common particles
  • understands compound words (jukugo)
  • understands complex sentence structures
  • becomes familiar with different writing styles (keitai, joutai)
  • becomes familiar with 4-character idioms (yojijukugo)
  • understands the use of conjunctions
  • selects & uses texts according to the purpose of the task and the accuracy of information
  • conducts effective online research
  • consults a range of sources when researching

STRATEGIES

  • applies a range of comprehension strategies (same as Primary 1 plus):
    • making inferences (eg: from pictures, titles, labels)
    • monitoring
  • compares & analyses the language used in different text types
  • becomes familiar with and uses features and functions of various ICT programs to access texts

Grade 5

SKILLS

  • reads a wide range of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts for pleasure and information
  • reads & recognises the second 100 Grade 3 kanji (教育漢字), including onyomi & kunyomi
  • distinguishes the appearance, pronunciation and meaning of Grade 3 kanji characters
  • recognises different writing styles (keitai, joutai)
  • understands 4-character idioms (yojijukugo)
  • becomes familiar with the structure & word choice in haiku
  • becomes familiar with classical Japanese words
  • recognises a variety of complex sentences
  • applies ongoing knowledge about sentence and grammar to help understand new material
  • recognises a variety of punctuation
  • locates key words and phrases in a text

STRATEGIES

  • applies a range of comprehension strategies (same as Primary 3 plus):
    • monitoring
    • clarifying
    • scanning
    • skimming
    • summarising
  • investigates how the structure & layout of different text types helps understanding
  • uses features and functions of various ICT programs to access texts
  • attempts to use the relationship between the spoken and written word to help with meaning
  • uses effective tools and strategies to increase reading vocabulary
  • selects and uses texts according to the purpose of the task and the accuracy of information
  • uses research skills to identify purpose, locate texts, gather and organize information, and summarize from several sources
  • quickly determines if a source is useful or valid

Grade 6

SKILLS

  • reads a wide range of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts for pleasure and information
  • reads & recognises the second 100 Grade 4 kanji (教育漢字), including onyomi & kunyomi
  • distinguishes the appearance, pronunciation and meaning of Grade 4 kanji characters
  • becomes familiar with different usage of words in classic & modern Japanese
  • understands correct use of formal Japanese
  • understands the structure & word choice in haiku
  • recognises a variety of complex sentences
  • uses a variety of punctuation
  • finds bias in texts

STRATEGIES

  • applies a range of comprehension strategies (same as Primary 3 plus):
    • monitoring
    • clarifying
    • scanning
    • skimming
    • summarising
  • investigates how the structure & layout of different text types helps understanding
  • uses knowledge of kanji characters (including meanings, derivation, word formations & combinations) to construct possible meanings
  • uses features and functions of various ICT programs to access texts
  • uses effective tools and strategies to increase reading vocabulary
  • selects and use texts according to the purpose of the task and the accuracy of information
  • uses research skills to identify purpose, locate texts, gather and organize information, and summarize from several sources
  • quickly determines if a source is useful or valid

Writing

Grade 1

SKILLS

  • writes all hiragana & katakana characters, using correct stroke order
  • knows that one character is represented by one sound
  • discriminates between functions of hiragana, katakana
  • writes simple sentences
  • uses common punctuation
  • writes simple letters & instructions
  • illustrates own writing
  • begins to use honorific style

STRATEGIES

  • enhances writing by making connections to personal experience
  • enjoys writing for a purpose
  • reads own writing for meaning
  • participates in shared writing, asking questions, offering suggestions

Grade 2

SKILLS

  • writes Grade 1 kanji (教育漢字), using correct stroke order
  • uses the 8 basic strokes used to write kanji characters
  • uses structure combinations of characters:“left-right”; “top-bottom”; “left-right facing”; “left-middle-right combination”; “top-middle-bottom”; “enclosing combination”; “semi-enclosing”
  • writes simple sentences
  • knows that one character can represent multiple sounds (kunyomi & onyomi)
  • writes simple sentences
  • uses common punctuation
  • writes simple letters & instructions
  • illustrates own writing
  • continues to use honorific style

STRATEGIES

  • copies learned characters with correct stroke order, using correct character structures
  • discriminates between functions of hiragana & katakana
  • independently attempts to write previously learned characters
  • independently copies new characters learned in class
  • enhances writing by making connections to personal experience
  • enjoys writing for a purpose
  • reads own writing for meaning
  • participates in shared writing, asking questions, offering suggestions

Grade 3

SKILLS

  • writes Grade 2 kanji (教育漢字), using correct stroke order
  • knows the difference between a character and a word
  • begins to use compound words (jukugo)
  • knows that kanji are formed in a specific way and must be written in a specific order
  • knows that there are common words that are used often in writing which are not classified by radicals
  • begins to explore different writing styles (keitai, joutai)
  • writes sentences in polite and plain form
  • begins to use more complex sentence structures and conjunctions
  • plans writing using a variety of tools
  • writes legibly in a consistent size and layout
  • begins to use paragraphs to organise ideas in a logical sequence
  • edits own work & the work of others
  • applies common punctuation including quotation marks

STRATEGIES

  • copies learned characters with correct stroke order, using correct character structures
  • attempts to write previously learned characters
  • independently copies new characters learned in class
  • uses feedback to improve writing
  • uses strategies to build increasingly complex vocabulary
  • writes based on own experiences and opinions

Grade 4

SKILLS

  • continues to use compound words (jukugo)
  • understands complex sentence structures
  • continues to explore different writing styles (keitai, joutai)
  • continues to use more complex sentence structures and conjunctions
  • consistently uses paragraphs to organise ideas in a logical sequence
  • uses supporting ideas & detailed descriptions in writing
  • plans writing using a variety of tools
  • uses more complex sentence structures and conjunctions
  • writes legibly in a consistent size and layout
  • uses paragraphs to organise ideas in a logical sequence
  • edits own work & the work of others
  • applies common punctuation including quotation marks

STRATEGIES

  • applies learned knowledge of radicals, stroke order, character formation when writing a new word
  • develops writing skills in different contexts
  • becomes familiar with and uses features and functions of various ICT programs to produce texts
  • uses feedback to improve writing
  • uses strategies to build increasingly complex vocabulary
  • writes based on own experiences and opinions

Grade 5

SKILLS

  • writes the second 100 Grade 3 kanji (教育漢字), using correct stroke order
  • begin to use different writing styles (keitai, joutai)
  • begins to use 4-character idioms (yojijukugo), metaphors & repetition
  • becomes familiar with & uses the correct structure & word choice for haiku
  • becomes familiar with & uses classical Japanese words
  • writes a variety of complex sentences
  • uses a variety of punctuation
  • plans, writes and revises own writing
  • writes sentences correctly, paying attention to okuri-gana and kana-zukai
  • uses appropriate paragraphing to organise ideas
  • begins to apply specific rules of grammar and accesses appropriate vocabulary to construct texts
  • applies more complex punctuation

STRATEGIES

  • applies learned knowledge of radicals, stroke order, character formation when writing a new word
  • uses features and functions of various ICT programs to produce a variety of texts
  • adapts writing to sustain audience interest
  • uses tools (such as dictionaries) to broaden vocabulary and enrich writing
  • uses a range of tools and techniques to produce written work and calligraphy that is attractively presented
  • locates, organises and synthesises informative tests using a variety of sources
  • gains awareness of the differences between spoken and written language
  • gains awareness of changes in language with the passage of time and generations

Grade 6

SKILLS

  • writes the first 100 Grade 4 kanji (教育漢字), using correct stroke order
  • uses different writing styles (keitai, joutai)
  • uses 4-character idioms (yojijukugo), metaphors & repetition
  • uses the correct structure & word choice for haiku
  • applies classical Japanese words
  • applies different usage of words in classic & modern Japanese
  • plans, writes and revises own writing
  • writes sentences correctly, paying attention to okuri-gana and kana-zukai
  • uses appropriate paragraphing to organise ideas
  • applies specific rules of grammar and accesses appropriate vocabulary to construct texts
  • applies more complex punctuation

STRATEGIES

  • shows development of own writing voice and style
  • adapt writing to sustain audience interest
  • uses tools (such as dictionaries) to broaden vocabulary and enrich writing
  • uses a range of tools and techniques to produce written work and calligraphy that is attractively presented
  • locates, organises and synthesises informative tests using a variety of sources
  • gains awareness of the differences between spoken and written language
  • gains awareness of changes in language with the passage of time and generations
  • uses available resources, ICT and modeled examples to support the construction of new texts

Speaking & Listening

Grade 1

SKILLS

  • listens to & follows instructions and directions
  • speaks in an organised way to express own thoughts & opinions
  • speaks about relevant & familiar topics and recalls familiar events
  • gives relevant feedback to others
  • communicates needs, expresses feelings & opinions to individuals or in a group
  • asks questions and responds to inquiries
  • memorises poems, songs & rhymes
  • uses appropriate greetings based on the situation
  • clearly annunciates words & phrases
  • participates actively in discussions
  • retells stories using visual prompts

STRATEGIES

  • enhances understanding by making connections between the listening material & their personal experience
  • uses pictures & visual aids to support speaking
  • pays attention to differences between polite form and plain form
  • considers interference from other languages

Grade 2

SKILLS

  • listens to & follows instructions and directions
  • speaks in an organised way to express own thoughts & opinions
  • speaks about relevant & familiar topics and recalls familiar events
  • gives relevant feedback to others
  • listens to information & grasp the main points of a shared text
  • listens to and comprehends the main points of a story & sequence of events
  • confidently uses self-introduction & greetings based on the situation
  • speaks in an organised way to coherently express own thoughts & opinions, using complete thoughts
  • communicates needs, expresses feelings & opinions to individuals or in a group
  • asks questions and responds to inquiries
  • memorises poems, songs & rhymes
  • clearly annunciates words & phrases
  • participates actively in discussions

STRATEGIES

  • enhances understanding by making connections between the listening material & their personal experience
  • uses pictures & visual aids to support speaking
  • organises speaking by making connections to personal experience, prior knowledge; purpose & audience
  • pays attention to differences between polite form and plain form
  • considers interference from other languages
  • decides on speaking content based on what needs to be expressed

Grade 3

SKILLS

  • listens and comprehends a story & the meaning implied
  • shows awareness of the author’s purpose expressed in listening material
  • makes a simple evaluation of spoken text
  • expresses own opinions, feelings and thoughts confidently
  • discusses topics & exchanges opinions in a small group
  • speaks in an organised way
  • pronounces words correctly & has clear articulation
  • presents orally with increasing confidence and detail
  • follows multi-step instructions

STRATEGIES

  • enhances understanding by making connections between a read text, prior knowledge & personal experience
  • decides on speaking content based on what needs to be expressed
  • chooses appropriate words depending on audience
  • uses graphics & visual aids to support presentations
  • hears and appreciates differences between languages
  • pays attention to audience, intonation, stresses of words & pauses
  • uses oral language for a variety of purposes (plain/polite form)
  • stresses main points and relevant ideas when speaking
  • respects others’ contributions; take turns and does not interrupt when others speak
  • organises speaking by making connections to personal experience and prior knowledge
  • makes notes or memos as cues during oral presentations

Grade 4

SKILLS

  • listens and comprehends the sequence of a story and the meaning implied
  • listens to the information and grasps the main points in audio/audio-visual material
  • follows multi-step instructions
  • evaluates content & presentation of speeches
  • recognises features & purpose of discussions
  • expresses own opinions, feelings and thoughts confidently
  • discusses topics & exchanges opinions in a small group
  • organises speech in a logical way
  • changes pitch & tone to express feelings
  • evaluates content of a presentation
  • evaluates the personality and behaviour of a presenter
  • presents orally with increasing confidence and detail

STRATEGIES

  • makes predictions about the rest of a story or its meaning
  • uses features of spoken text to deduce the content
  • groups, categorises & summarises what is heard
  • decides on speaking content based on what needs to be expressed
  • chooses appropriate words depending on audience
  • uses graphics & visual aids to support presentations
  • hears and appreciates differences between languages
  • pays attention to audience, intonation, stresses of words & pauses
  • uses oral language for a variety of purposes (plain/polite form)
  • stresses main points and relevant ideas when speaking
  • respects others’ contributions; take turns and does not interrupt when others speak
  • organises speaking by making connections to personal experience and prior knowledge
  • makes notes or memos as cues during oral presentations

Grade 5

SKILLS

  • participates appropriately as a listener and speaker in a variety of different situations
  • listens & responds appropriately to instructions, questions and explanations
  • listens & comprehends the main theme or purpose of a spoken text
  • evaluates a speaker’s tone and attitude/emotion
  • analyses & summarises the content of a spoken text
  • expresses own opinions & comments confidently
  • uses appropriate words & rhetorical devices to describe scenes & express feelings
  • gives own opinions & comments in an organized, concise and logical way
  • uses appropriate tenor, tone, volume, facial expressions & actions depending on situation or audience
  • participates actively in discussions
  • uses increasingly complex vocabulary
  • uses standard grammatical structures competently
  • uses register, tone, voice level and intonation effectively

STRATEGIES

  • grasps important words, phrases & sentences
  • pays attention to the details of the speech (e.g. time, place, people, events)
  • shows appreciation when people speak and responds according to personal and cultural perspectives
  • paraphrases and summarises when communicating
  • understands the difference between standard Japanese and other dialects
  • uses standard Japanese when necessary
  • uses appropriate language in accordance with the situation
  • conducts discussions in a planned manner, taking a clear position and intent of each other
  • uses different media to enhance presentations

Grade 6

SKILLS

  • listens to main points, summarises & analyses content of spoken texts
  • understands the message behind a story through the vocabulary used
  • evaluates a speaker’s tone, attitude & emotion
  • listens quietly, patiently, show focus and appreciation
  • gives appropriate responses when listening
  • participates appropriately as a listener and speaker in a variety of different situations
  • listens & responds appropriately to instructions, questions and explanations
  • evaluates a speaker’s tone and attitude/emotion
  • expresses own opinions & comments confidently
  • uses appropriate words & rhetorical devices to describe scenes & express feelings
  • gives own opinions & comments in an organized, concise and logical way
  • uses appropriate tenor, tone, volume, facial expressions & actions depending on situation or audience
  • participates actively in discussions
  • uses increasingly complex vocabulary
  • uses standard grammatical structures competently
  • uses register, tone, voice level and intonation effectively

STRATEGIES

  • grasps important words, phrases & sentences
  • pays attention to the details of the speech (e.g. time, place, people, events)
  • shows appreciation when people speak and responds according to personal and cultural perspectives
  • paraphrases and summarises when communicating
  • understands the difference between standard Japanese and other dialects
  • uses standard Japanese when necessary
  • uses appropriate language in accordance with the situation
  • conducts discussions in a planned manner, taking a clear position and intent of each other
  • understands content by observing facial expressions
  • determines content, vocabulary, tone & style based on situation, purpose, audience & setting
  • makes deductions about topic content & opinions expressed based on what is heard
  • evaluates whether a speech’s content is accurate based on context
  • predicts a speaker’s identity or status from the tenor or opinions expressed
  • uses different media to enhance presentations