JAL: Japanese as an Additional Language

Reading

Writing

Speaking & Listening

BEGINNING PHASE Up to 1 year

EARLY PHASE 1 to 3 years

EXPLORATORY PHASE 3 to 5 years

CONSOLIDATING PHASE 5 to 7 years

Reading

Beginning Phase (up to 1 year)

SKILLS

  • recognises hiragana characters as they are introduced through activities & games
  • begins to recognise key words & phrases in print (in hiragana)
  • experiments with Japanese phonemes
  • locates Japanese words which have been incorporated into English
  • locates English words which have been incorporated into Japanese

STRATEGIES

  • understands that hiragana characters can be combined to represent sounds & words
  • knows that a single hiragana character represents a single sound
  • finds examples of Japanese in the environment to create a class collection or display
  • creates an international world wall using “borrowed” words

Early Phase (1 to 3 yrs)

SKILLS

  • recognises all hiragana & katakana characters
  • recalls the systematic order within the hiragana & katakana character set
  • recognises target words & phrases in print (in hiragana & katakana)
  • recognises some key elements of Japanese grammar
  • knows that katakana is usually used for “borrowed” words
  • finds “borrowed” words in Japanese texts
  • recognises familiar words in hiragana & katakana in familiar contexts

STRATEGIES

  • begins to respond to shared imaginative texts by
    • retelling
    • questioning
    • making connections (text to self, text to text, text to world)
    • visualising
  • begins to use context, visual images & familiar vocabulary to assist comprehension


Exploratory Phase (3-5 years)

SKILLS

  • begins to recognise simple kanji from Grade 1 list (教育漢字)
  • reads short texts (in hiragana & katakana)
  • recognises familiar words & phrases in different contexts
  • moves competently between hiragana & katakana
  • locates familiar vocabulary in a variety of contexts
  • begins to recognise & identify features of different text types

STRATEGIES

  • distinguishes between the three different Japanese scripts
  • begins to see links between pictographs & kanji
  • knows that kanji represents meaning as well as sounds
  • responds to shared imaginative texts by
    • retelling
    • questioning
    • making connections (text to self, text to text, text to world)
    • visualising
  • uses context, visual images & familiar vocabulary to assist comprehension

Consolidating Phase (5-7 yrs)

SKILLS

  • continues to recognise kanji from Grade 1 list (教育漢字)
  • recognises target words & phrases in print (in kanji & kana)
  • begins to knows the difference between a character & a compound word
  • reads short texts involving simple kanji
  • begins to access available resources to assist in comprehending a text, (eg: word lists, glossaries, dictionaries)
  • reads different imaginative texts: describes & gives opinions about characters and events
  • recognises & identifies features of different text types

STRATEGIES

  • begins to recognise kanji by looking at the shape or the components
  • responds to shared imaginative texts by
    • predicting
    • activating prior knowledge
    • scanning
    • skimming
    • summarising

Writing

Beginning Phase (0-1 yr)

SKILLS

  • copies & traces hiragana, with correct stroke order; practicing in a variety of ways
  • copies & traces keywords
  • creates simple texts for classroom (captions, labels & wall charts)
  • knows that a single hiragana or katakana character is represented by a single sound
  • uses captions to describe feelings
  • contributes to joint construction of texts used to socialise (eg: invitations, labels)

STRATEGIES

  • understands that hiragana symbols can be combined to represent sounds & words
  • begins to understand basic Japanese sentence structure
  • begins to understand that hiragana characters are formed in a specific way & should be written in a specific order

Early Phase (1-3 yrs)

SKILLS

  • writes all hiragana & katakana characters, with correct stroke order
  • writes keywords & simple sentences in hiragana & katakana
  • begins to apply some key elements of Japanese grammar
  • with support, creates familiar, simple texts that use known expressions & modelled language

STRATEGIES

  • understands basic Japanese sentence structure
  • knows that katakana is usually used for “borrowed” words
  • understands that hiragana & katakana characters are formed in a specific way & should be written in a specific order

Exploratory Stage (3-5 yrs)

SKILLS

  • begins to write simple kanji from Grade 1 list (教育漢字), with correct stroke order, using correct character structures
  • writes short texts (in hiragana & katakana), using appropriate sentence structure, grammar & vocabulary
  • moves competently between hiragana & katakana

STRATEGIES

  • distinguishes between the three different Japanese scripts
  • begins to see links between pictographs & kanji
  • begins to understand that kanji characters are formed in specific ways (radicals, stroke order, components, types of formation)

Consolidating phase (5-7 yrs)

SKILLS

  • continues to write kanji from Grade 1 list (教育漢字), with correct stroke order, using correct character structures
  • begins to knows the difference between a character & a compound word
  • starts to convey information in a sequence of sentences using kanji, appropriate sentence structure, grammar & vocabulary
  • begins to create a variety of texts to convey information to a range of audiences

STRATEGIES

  • begins to access available resources to assist in writing text, (eg: word lists, glossaries, dictionaries)
  • attempts to apply knowledge of radicals, stroke order, character formation when writing new kanji

Speaking & Listening

Beginning Phase (0-1 yr)

SKILLS

  • begins to identify sounds represented by hiragana
  • recalls basic numerals; simple greetings & requests; basic expressions & instructions, with support of gestures
  • initiates & responds to simple greetings, instructions & requests
  • repeats, retells & recites learned words & phrases
  • exchanges personal information
  • mimics correct pronunciation, intonation & rhythm
  • identifies keywords in repetitive spoken text
  • actively participates in guided group activities & classroom routines
  • participates in rhymes & songs

STRATEGIES

  • understands that vowel sounds can be elongated & that this can change meaning
  • recognises sounds & rhythms of spoken Japanese
  • knows that the sounds of Japanese differs from other languages
  • knows that that are specific ways to address people in Japanese
  • recognises that Japanese borrows words and expressions from other languages
  • shows an awareness of sound-symbol relationships

Early Phase (1-3 yr)

SKILLS

  • identifies sounds represented by hiragana & katakana
  • identifies & responds to keywords & phrases in context
  • identifies the purpose of; and responds to greetings, set phrases, questions, requests & statements in familiar social interactions
  • correctly addresses people, introduces themselves, exchanges basic personal information
  • begins to follow social cues
  • indicates basic needs & wants using learned words & phrases, body language & objects
  • creates short speeches related to their personal world, with the support of modelled language, scaffolded examples & resources

STRATEGIES

  • identifies ways in which rhythm is used to chunk phrases within a sentence
  • begins to know the role of particles
  • infers meaning from different social contexts
  • begins to understand that language & culture are closely connected
  • begins to use non-verbal expressions to assist listening

Exploratory Phase (3-5 yr)

SKILLS

  • listens to short texts while following the written form
  • identifies sections of brief, casual conversations (e.g. greetings, interactions, farewells)
  • responds to questions, instructions and requests appropriately
  • uses appropriate pronunciation & intonation in everyday conversation
  • follows social cues
  • participates spontaneously in social exchanges with teacher & peers
  • consistently use Japanese in classroom activities
  • mimics pronunciation, intonation & rhythm through shared reading
  • knows the role of particles when communicating

STRATEGIES

  • begins to understand the importance of correct pronunciation, intonation, tone & stress for effective communication & assisting meaning
  • listens for keywords to assist understanding
  • uses appropriate verbal & non-verbal expressions in social interactions

Consolidating Phase (5-7 yr)

SKILLS

  • uses formulaic expressions appropriate to the occasion
  • listens to short texts without following the written form
  • responds appropriately in familiar situations
  • uses modelled language & formulaic expressions to initiate & maintain communications
  • begins to share interests & experiences; and express opinions & feelings

STRATEGIES

  • understands how verbal & non-verbal language assists meaning
  • applies culture-specific conventions in social interaction
  • consistently uses appropriate register, formality & politeness
  • uses intonation as a language tool
  • considers context as way to help understanding for the speaker & listener